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Technical terms


AADI (Asociación Argentina de Intérpretes)
The Argentine Interpreters Association is an association of musical interpreters in Argentina, founded in 1957.

AFRTS (American Forces Radio and Television Services)
AFRTS is the American Forces Radio and Television Service. It is part of the Department of Defense, and is headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia. The AFRTS mission is to communicate Department of Defense policies, priorities, programs, goals and initiatives. AFRTS provides stateside radio and television programming, "a touch of home," to U.S. service men and women, DoD civilians, and their families serving outside the continental United States. AFRTS includes the Radio and Television Production Office (RTPO), The Pentagon Channel NewsCenter, and the Defense Media Center.

AGADU (Asociación General de Autores del Uruguay)
A society founded in 1929 to protecd the musical copyrights of composers and songwriters in Uruguay.

ASCAP (American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers)
A not-for-profit performing rights organization that protects its members' musical copyrights by monitoring public performances of their music. ASCAP collects licensing fees from users of music created by ASCAP members.

ASIN (Amazon Standard Identification Number)
A product identification number used by and its partners. Despite the name, it is not a 'standard' outside of, but is used consistently for referencing products within the Amazon network of sites.

Austrian non-profit collecting society to protect the applications of the mechanical copyrights.

BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation)
It is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employees and budget.

BIEM (Bureau International des Sociétés Gérant les Droits d'Enregistrement et de Reproduction Mécanique)
The international organisation representing mechanical rights societies.

BMI (Broadcast Music Incorporated)
A performance rights organization. It collects license fees on behalf of its songwriters, composers, and music publishers.

BPI (British Phonographic Industry)
An organization that represents and protect and promote the British music industry.

If you are not very familiar with this shortcut, it means 'Brain Salad Surgery'. A lot of music fans use this kind of short form, for example: Yes' TFTO=Tales From Topographic Oceans and CTTE=Close To The Edge, and so on...

CAPIF (Cámara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas)
The Argentine Chamber of Phonograms and Videograms Producers is an Argentine member organization of IFPI.

CRC (Columbia Record Club)
Columbia Records is the oldest continually used brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888. In 1948 they introduced the LP...and a couple years later they started the Columbia Record Club, which delivered records to your door at wonderful prices and gave lots of free stuff besides. Later it was merged with Sony, and then with BMG.

CRIA (Canadian Recording Industry Association)
This non-profit trade organization is the voice and guardian of the record industry in Canada.

CV (Control Voltage)
A method of controlling synthesizers, drum machines and other similar equipment with external sequencers. This method was widely used in the epoch of analog modular synthesizers in the 1970s.

DAC (Digital Analog Converter)
In signal processing, an audio converter or digital audio converter is a type of electronic hardware technology which converts an analog audio signal to a digital audio format, either on the input (analog-to-digital converter, or ADC), or the output (digital-to-analog converter, or DAC).

Dead wax
It is the run-out area of a record, the bit between the end of the music, and the label. The term 'lead-out area', is also sometimes used for this part of the record.

Delta number
It is depicted as a triangle. This triangle with an added combination of numbers can be found in the dead wax of productions by several US companies. Method and system of the allocation of delta numbers has not been completely resolved yet. This numbering system has only been used for records manufactured in Californian pressing plants - across various companies and in chronological sequence, from 1954 until the end of the 1970s.

A manual or automatic procedure to combine the tone of a multichannel-sound format into a version with less independent channels. In most cases it is a stereo-version. It becomes necessary if exclusively multi-channel present sound on a reproduction system is given which owns a lower number in loudspeakers than the original.

DP (Domain Public)
It is standing for denoting recordings for which the copyright period has expired and that can therefore be published without any license information. This period extends at the moment to 50 years.

DVD-A (Digital Versalite Disc Audio)
DVD-Audio is a digital format for delivering very high-fidelity audio content on a DVD. DVD-Audio is not intended to be a video delivery format and should not be confused with video DVDs containing concerts and music videos. The first discs entered the marketplace in 2000. Future occasional DVD-Audio releases are expected and/or have been announced. DVD-Audio is in a format war with Super Audio CD (SACD), another format for delivering high-fidelity audio content. Neither has gained a strong position in the marketplace. As media players that can play both DVD-Audio and SACD (and many other formats) are available, both are likely to co-exist. It has a capacity up to 8.5 GB. DVD-Audio offers many possible configurations of audio channels, ranging from single-channel mono to 5.1-channel surround sound, at various sampling frequencies and sample rates.

EAN (European Article Number)
The European Article Number is a barcoding standard which is a superset of the original 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) system developed in North America. The EAN-13 barcode is defined by the standards organisation GS1.

A flanger is a device dedicated to creating a time-based audio effect that occurs when two identical signals are mixed together, but with one signal time-delayed by a small and gradually changing amount, usually smaller than 20 milliseconds.

GEMA (Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte)
Society for musical performing and mechanical reproduction rights in Germany.

Glass master
A glass master, also referred to as a 'stamper' is used to punch all of the data pits into a CD during the process of replication. It is called a glass master is because the information is copied onto a special chemical coating on a circular block of glass.

I.E.S. (International Entertainment Services Ltd)
The company that provides the traveling sound system for the ELP shows. It was located in London and New York.

IFPI (International Federation of the Phonographic Industry)
The organisation that represents the interests of the recording industry worldwide for more than 1,450 record companies in 75 different countries.

JASRAC (Japanese Society for Rights of Authors Composers and Publishers)
Established in 1939 as a non-profit making organization. It is the largest musical copyright administration society in Japan.

JBL is an American audio electronics company owned by Harman International that was founded in 1946 by James Bullough Lansing. Their primary products are loudspeakers and associated electronics. There are two independent divisions within the company - JBL Consumer and JBL Professional.

LBR (Laser Beam Recorder)
A laser beam recorder is used to expose the photoresist layer on the glass master where the final pits are required. This is carried out in a class 100 controlled environment using a high power gas laser from the premastered source audio or CD-ROM data. The laser can be blue, violet or (for DVD mastering) ultraviolet.

LC (Label Code)
The label code was introduced in 1974 in order to introduce a quick reference system for distributing broadcasting royalties for music played on the radio. This code can be found exclusively on the back cover as well as the label of sound carriers produced in the German market.

LFO (Low Frequency Oscillation)
It is an audio signal usually below 20 Hz which creates a pulsating rhythm rather than a audible tone.

Matrix code
The matrix code is almost exclusively printed by machine on a record (in the dead wax area) and in many cases identical regarding number and amount of contents, but the different record companies used specific codes for most of the information. Not all of this information is relevant for the dating of a record.

MCPS (Mechanical Copyright Protection Society)
The MCPS is the UK's mechanical right collecting society. The company license the use of music on behalf of songwriters, composers and music publishers.

MFSL (Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab)
Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab has been the undisputed pioneer and leader in audiophile recordings since the company's inception in 1977. The essential idea is to unveil all the detailed musical information on the original master recording without adding deterioration, coloration or other sonic artifacts.

Colloquial phrase for microphone.

MLP (Meridian Lossless Packing)
Meridian Lossless Packing is a proprietary lossless compression technique for compressing PCM audio data developed by Meridian Audio Ltd. MLP is the standard lossless compression method for DVD-Audio content and often advertised with the Advanced Resolution logo. All DVD-Audio players are equipped with MLP decoding.

NCB (Nordisk Copyright Bureau)
A Nordic-Baltic society that in co-operation with copyright societies abroad administers the copyrights in the recording and production of music on CD, DVD, film, video, the Internet etc on behalf of composers, lyricists and music publishers.

A technique used by recording studios to add a supplementary recorded sound to a previously recorded performance.

P.A. (Public Address)
It is an electronic amplification system with a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used usually for reproduction of speech and recorded or live music in buildings and institutions.

PMPO (Peak Music Power Output)
The term PMPO has never been defined in any standard but it is often taken to be the sum of some sort of peak power for each amplifier in a system. Different manufacturers use different definitions, so that the ratio of PMPO to continuous power output varies widely; it is not possible to convert from one to the other.

Red Book
Red Book is the standard for audio CDs. It is named after one of a set of color-bound books that contain the technical specifications for all CD and CD-ROM formats. The first edition of the Red Book was released in June 1980 by Philips and Sony; it was adopted by the Digital Audio Disc Committee and ratified as IEC 908.

RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America)
A trade group that represents the recording industry in the United States.

Ring Modulator
The ring modulator is a device creating an effect in electronics, related to amplitude modulation or frequency mixing, performed by multiplying two audio signals, where one is typically a sine-wave or another simple waveform.

RMS (Root Mean Square)
Root mean square, also known as the quadratic mean, is a statistical measure of the magnitude of a varying quantity. It is especially useful when variates are positive and negative, e.g. waves. The RMS value of a function is often used in physics and electronics.

Rpm (Revolutions per minute)
It is a unit of frequency, commonly used to measure rotational speed, in particular in the case of rotation around a fixed axis. Phonograph records typically rotate steadily at 16, 33 1/3, 45 or 78 rpm, Audio-CD rotation rates vary from about 500 rpm when reading the innermost data track, to 180 rpm when reading tracks near the outer edge.

SABAM (Société d’Auteurs Belge–Belgische Auteurs Maatschappij)
Belgium copyright law makes the composer of a song the exclusive owner of that song and SABAM collects royalties on behalf of that owner. SABAM is an organization that has a monopoly on royalty collection in Belgium.

SACD (Super Audio Compact Disc)
The Super Audio CD is a read-only optical audio disc format that can provide higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the normal audio CD. Introduced in 1999, it was developed by Sony and Philips Electronics, the same companies that created the Compact Disc. SACD is in a format war with DVD-Audio, but neither format has managed to replace regular audio CDs. It has a capacity up to 7.95 GB and comes in three types: Hybrid, single layer and double layer. Hybrid Super Audio CDs (which include both a Stereo CD and a Super Audio CD layer) can be played back on CD players. To hear the Super Audio CD Stereo, and on many discs the Super Audio CD Multichannel, layer requires a Super Audio CD player.

SACEM (Société des Auteurs Compositeurs et Éditeurs de Musique)
A French professional association collecting payments of artists’ rights and distributing the rights to the original authors, composers and publishers.

SADAIC (Sociedad Argentina de Autores y Compositores de Música)
The Argentina Society of Music Authors and Composers is the performance rights organisation that keeps registry of musical works, and collects and distributes royalties on behalf of the artists. Founded in 1936.

SAKOJ (Savez organizacija kompozitora Jugoslavije)
The organisation of the Yugoslavian composers that protects its members' musical copyrights.

Sample and hold
In electronics, a sample and hold circuit is used to interface real-world, changing analogue signals to a subsequent system such as an analog-to-digital converter. The purpose of this circuit is to hold the analogue value steady for a short time while the converter or other following system performs some operation that takes a little time.

In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was traditionally a device that allows the user to record, play back and edit musical patterns. This usually did not include the ability to record audio, only the control information for synthesizers to recreate the composition. Keith Emerson used for his Modular Moog a sequencer with three rows of eight steps (unit 960).

SHM-CD (Super High Material Compact Disc)
Devoloped by Universal Music and Victor Japan, the SHM-CD format features enhanced audio quality through the use of a special polycarbonate plastic. SHM-CDs feature improved transparency on the data side of the disc, allowing for more accurate reading of CD data by the CD player laser head. SHM-CD format CDs are fully compatible with standard CD players.

SID (Source Identification Code)
The SID-Code provides an optical disc production facility with the means to identify that all discs mastered and/or replicated in its plant, and the individual laser beam recorder (LBR) signal processor or mould that produced a particular stamper or disc.

SNEP (Syndicat National de l'Edition Phonographique)
The inter-professional organisation which protects the interests of the French record industry.

STEMRA (Stichting tot Exploritatie van mechanischen reproductie Rechten der Auteurs)
Private organization in the Netherlands operating as that acts as the Dutch collecting society for composers and music publishers.

Target CD
Target CDs are first pressings released by WEA (Warner-Elektra-Atlantic) in the early-to-mid 1980s. They were manufactured in either West Germany or Japan for distribution in the US before domestic pressing facilities were online. Target CDs derive their name from the design used by WEA, which resembles a gunsight, crosshairs, or a target. These early CDs are often readily identified by the striking colors used on the label side.

TOC (Table of contents)
The Table of contents is the central information of every Compact Disc. The TOC contains the start positions of the single tracks of the CD. The TOC is stored in the leadin area.

UPC (Universal Product Code)
The Universal Product Code is one of a wide variety of bar code languages called symbologies. The UPC is the barcode widely used in the United States and Canada for trade items in stores.

WPC (Watts per channel)
The electrical power transferred from an audio amplifier to a loudspeaker, stated in watts per channel.

VCA (Voltage Controlled Amplifier)
An electronic amplifier that varies its gain depending on a control voltage. They have many applications, including audio level compression, synthesizers, and amplitude modulation.

VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator)
An electronic oscillator designed to be controlled in oscillation frequency by a voltage input. The frequency of oscillation is varied by the applied DC voltage, while modulating signals may also be fed into the VCO to cause frequency modulation (FM) or phase modulation (PM).

If you are not very familiar with this shortcut, it means 'Welcome Back My Friends To The Show That Never Ends'. A lot of music fans use this kind of short form, for example: Yes' TFTO=Tales From Topographic Oceans and CTTE=Close To The Edge, and so on...

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Last update: August 26, 2018 © 2006-2018 All rights reserved |

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